Tips and Tricks: Filtering the Security Policy

L7 Applicator

 

 

 

Manually searching through the policies can be pretty hard if there are many rules and it's been a long day. Luckily, there are search functions available to you to make life a little easier.

 

First off, you can simply type in any keyword you are looking for, which can be a policy name (as one word), an IP address/subnet or object name, an application, or a service.

 

One caveat is that this needs to be a string match, so it cannot be a subnet. Wildcards (*) are not supported.

 

You can also search within a specific field, like source zone or application. There's an easy drop-down function you can use to automatically create the search filter.

 

You can also create a search string manually. I've provided a list of all fields below:

 

Tags: (tag/member eq 'tagname')

Name: (name contains 'unlocate-block')

Type: (rule-type eq 'intrazone|interzone')

Source Zone: (from/member eq 'zonename')

Source Address: (source/member eq 'any|ip|object')

Source User: (source-user/member eq 'any|username|groupname')

Hip profile:  (hip-profiles/member eq 'any|profilename')

Destination Zone: (to/member eq 'zonename')

Destination Address: (destination/member eq 'any|ip|object')

Destination User: (destination-user/member eq 'any|username|groupname')

Application: (application/member eq 'any|applicationname|applicationgroup|applicationfilter')

Service: (service/member eq 'any|servicename|application-default')

URL Category: (category/member eq 'any|categoryname')

           This is a destination category, not a URL filtering security profile

Action: (action eq 'allow|drop|deny|reset-client|reset-server|reset-both')

Action send ICMP unreachable: (icmp-unreachable eq 'yes')

Security Profiles:

      (profile-setting/profiles/virus/member eq 'profilename')

      (profile-setting/profiles/spyware/member eq 'profilename')

      (profile-setting/profiles/vulnerability/member eq 'profilename')

      (profile-setting/profiles/url-filtering/member eq 'profilename')

      (profile-setting/profiles/file-blocking/member eq 'profilename')

      (profile-setting/profiles/wildfire-analysis/member eq 'profilegroupname')

      (profile-setting/group/member eq 'profilename')

Disable server response inspection: (option/disable-server-response-inspection eq 'yes')

Log at session start: (log-start eq 'yes|no')

Log at session end: (log-end eq 'yes|no')

Schedule: (schedule eq 'schedulename')

Log Forwarding:  (log-setting eq "forwardingprofilename')

Qos Marking:    (qos/marking/ip-dscp eq 'codepoint')

                            (qos/marking/ip-precedence eq 'codepoint')

                            (qos/marking/follow-c2s-flow eq '')

Description: (description contains '<keyword>')

 

Disabled policy: (disabled eq yes|no)  

           policies will only respond to 'no' if they have been disabled before

 

NOTES: 

  • searched terms are case sensitive! (Untrust or untrust)
  • operands include 'eq', 'neq', 'contains'

 

Lastly, the Tag Browser can also come in very handy if you're able to tag all your security policies. It can be used in a similar way as the search function and display only the selected tags.

 

More information and a tutorial video on the Tag Browser can be found here: Tutorial: Tag Browser

 

 

Also take a look at our video and transcript on Filtering the Security Policy

 

Hope this was helpful, feel free to ask questions or post remarks below.

 

Reaper out

98,402 Views
Comments
L2 Linker

Thanks Reaper.  I am not following what you mean about creating search strings manually though. Would you elaborate a bit more or follow up with a breif tutorial video for this too?

 

 

97,116 Views
L7 Applicator

good news @Lora, the tutorial video is in the shop  (it's being edited and should be made available soon) ;)

you can use a more complex search string to search for a specific 'type' of policy and if you want, you can create these in advance so you'd only need to copy/paste them into the search bar,

 

eg. 

(from/member eq 'trust') and (to/member eq 'dmz') and (destination/member eq 'webserver')

hope this helps

97,101 Views
L2 Linker

Do we enter those searcgh strings in the search bar of the Policy tab?  They don't seem to work at all for me if so. We are on the PAN OS 7.1 strand, are these only available in 8.0?

97,088 Views
L7 Applicator

Hi @Lora

yes, they go in the search bar. This works for all versions of PAN-OS, could you share a screenshot?

7.1 example7.1 example

97,042 Views
L2 Linker

My issue was I was entering the Zones in all lower case, turns out the search is case sensitive.  Thanks @reaper

97,007 Views
L7 Applicator

@Lora good point! I've added a note to highlight the search is case sensitive, thanks for pointing that out!

96,937 Views
L2 Linker

@reaper

This is great. Thanks!

 

As a note to @Lora's feedback, on our PA3020 running 7.1.7 searching for Zone by name does NOT appear case sensitive. Filtering for (name contains 'vpn') finds zones named 'VPN_Whatever'. This is the same for other words, as wellMaybe this is different in specific revs?

 

Also, I'm trying to negate a filter search and not having any luck.

 

I'm using:

not (name contains 'vpn') 

 

And it's not working (it returns all policies). Just doing "name contains 'vpn'" works just fine. I'm also able to use AND and OR operands with separate search conditions in parenthesis just fine in Security Policy. For example: (name contains vpn) and (name contains users). So, it's just the negation (not) that doesn't seem to work for me. Works in log filtering. Any ideas?

 

I guess it's possible there are separate filter/search facilities for search in these areas vs filters in logs,  but I don't see why they wouldn't have it uniform. 

 

Ultimately I'd like to filter out the noise having a filter string that omits our VPN, GP, and other policies that crowd out the others. 

 

96,907 Views
L7 Applicator

@LogicalParadox the 'neq' operand should help filter out unwanted matches

 

if you tag all your policies you could tag your VPN rules and then (tag/member neq 'vpn'), for example

 

there's a difference in search facilities because the logs are a database you can query while the policies are a search in XML

you could open a feature request with your local sales contact to have the 'query/filter builder' added to the policies

96,890 Views
L2 Linker

@reaper, I replied in the other thread as well just to confirm that neq can only negate a full match (whole policy name), right? So, essentially, what I'm trying to do (negate matching a string within a name using some form of "contains" or "does not contain") is not possible. Is that right?

 

Edit: @reaper confirmed it is not possible.

96,852 Views
L0 Member

@reaper
Thank you, this list is an excellent resource.

How can we filter by an empty configuration option? For example, to show only rules without any Security Policy or Log Forwarding? When I attempt " (profile-setting/group/member neq '') " or " (profile-setting/profiles/virus/member neq '') " I get no results.

95,228 Views
L7 Applicator

hi @marroquin 

you can't, you can only look for a keyword to match, not a condition

so where a policy has 'any' you can look for "eq 'any' " or "neq 'any' " but not ' ' as the XML will not allow empty fields:

- there is either a condition to indicate _anything_ can be used as 'any' (eg. source any; )

- or the entry is simply deleted from the XML if no parameter is set:if logging is disabled, the log-end line is simply deleted

 

policy xml.png

93,675 Views
L0 Member

Hi,  

In the new versions of PANOS 8.1 we have the hit counter (and the rule usage in Panorama)  is there a search keyword for these?  I know you can highlight unused, but I would love to generate a pdf report of the unused rules.

45,386 Views
L1 Bithead

What exactly does this mean?

policies will only respond to 'no' if they have been disabled before

 

When I use the filter (disables eq yes) I get the expected results, all of my disabled rules

When I use the filter (disabled eq no) I do not get all of the enabled rules

 

So can some explain the disabled before in a bit more detail? This implies it was once disabled and then is now enabled?

How does it flag this and how do you clear it? Reboot or via a cmd?

 

Thanks,

Mark

42,266 Views
Cyber Elite

@MarkDufault,

Essentially what you are searching for is the string <disabled>yes</disabled> or <disabled>no</disabled> in the security rulebase entry. By default, this line is not included unless you've previously disabled the entry and then reenabled it. 

If you want to make this search work across your rulebase, simply set 'disabled no' on your entries or manually add <disabled>no</disabled> in the XML of your configuration.

 

42,264 Views
L0 Member

Hi
I would also like to know if its possible to filter out all unused rules, to be able to generate a report of the unused rules only

 

39,132 Views
L7 Applicator

@Anders_Bohman check out the Policy Optimizer in PAN-OS 9.0 :

PAN-OS 9.0 Release Features: Policy Optimizer and App-ID

39,117 Views
L1 Bithead

Hi @Anders_Bohman 

 

Did you find a way to filter out the unused rules to generate a report. Please let me know.

 

Thanks.

13,789 Views
L1 Bithead

@jpage386 

 

Hey, did you find a way to filter out the unused rules, in order to get a report of the unused rules. Please let me know.

 

Thanks.

13,777 Views
L1 Bithead

show running rule-use highlight rule-base security type unused vsys vsys1

or

show running rule-use highlight rule-base security type used vsys vsys1

13,750 Views
L0 Member

Thank you very much @MarkDufault

13,727 Views
L0 Member

Sorry, I did not, I am glad Mark posted.

13,719 Views
L0 Member

Sorry for something that might be easy, but I am not successful in searching the rules.  I want to search for source ip and destination ip.  src: 1.1.1.1 and dst: 2.2.2.2.  Can someone please provide the palo syntax to do this?  I've tried to just do a search on a source that I see the rule for and when I use this  (addr.src in 30.128.32.137)  all the rules disappear so clearly this doesn't work.  I got his example from https://knowledgebase.paloaltonetworks.com/KCSArticleDetail?id=kA10g000000ClSlCAK so that knowledgebase article seems to have bad info.  Thanks in advance.

13,041 Views
L7 Applicator

Hi @Matthew.Sherman 

 

You can't search security rules for random IP addresses, you can only search for exactly (partially)matching object names

So if you created an object _callef_  1.1.1.1 you'll be able to find it, else the search will turn up empty

 

On the other hand, if you want to find which rule a connection would match, use the troubleshooting tool under the > Device tab

 

13,014 Views
L0 Member

Thanks for the response. 

That's not as useful then.  By searching by IP allows you to find rules that have networks that include that IP.  Checkpoint does this quite well and makes it so you don't have duplicate rules.  Although checkpoint does let you know if you are hiding/shadowing a rule, but a search makes it quicker to figure this out.  Searching with IPs also helps show you which rules allow traffic for a user that isn't working.  Their specific IP might not have a rule but a network might and you can see what is currently allowed or specifically denied. There are times when traffic isn't making it to the firewall but at least you can see if a rule will allow the traffic once it does make it that far.  Does anyone know if this has already been put in for a feature request or should I go ahead and ask my rep?  Thanks

12,997 Views
L1 Bithead

@Matthew.Sherman 

 

If you can login to the GUI and Monitor>Traffic, we can find the traffic logs. You can select all the columns that can be viewed in that traffic monitor tab. Over there you can check the "rule" column to be displayed, then filter out the Source and Destination IP address. You can find the rule which is allowing/denying the traffic. This process worked for me previously.

 

Hope this helps.

12,980 Views
L7 Applicator

@Matthew.Sherman 

You can find matched rules in log for past traffic, traffic debugging tool for expected traffic, and rule usage statistics to see if a rule is being hit or not

 

Plenty of roads leading to Rome

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