Congratulations, directly with your first post here in the great Live community you have reached the champions league :Pfor global protect configurations (SSO, MFA, Always-On, Enforce GP for Network Access). Unfortunately I am dealing with such a configuration since one year and so far I still need to have workarounds configured to have it working without GP being a too big pain for the users.
Let's start. So far SSO and MFA is actually a bad idea except if you ONLY use TOTP (or something else that does not result in a direct notification for the users). The issue here is, global protect sends an authentication to the portal as soon the login is done. Unfortunately this is done in the background and at this stage global protect is not ready to show an OTP prompt to the user so the authentication fails directly. Immediately the next authentication attempt (with the credentials GP has because of SSO) starts but this time the additional prompt is shown to the user and as you describe it the user has already received multiple MFA/OTP notifications. When we first experianced this issue one year ago there were some meetings with paloalto and the result was a feature request where we hope will be implemented in the next GP major version. With this feature request the behaviour you need should be implemented without bothering the users with too much useless notifications. Unfortunately this explanation does not really help you, so I try to explain how I solved this...
On the portal I use autentication override with a cookie that is issues and used only on the portal so here the user has to log in only once and starting after this login the cookie is used to authenticate the user to the portal. On the gateway I activated the setting that requires dynamic passwords for external gateways. The tradeoff is that for every login from external users have to enter username, password and OTP. But so far this is the best working config I have found when the requirements are: SSO, MFA, Always-On and enforce GP. (If someone has a better solution PLEASE share it :P )
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