TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, a connection needs to be established before two devices can communicate. TCP uses a process called three-way handshake to negotiate the sequence and acknowledgment fields and start the session. Here is a graphical representation of the process.
The three way handshake process consists of three steps:
Post TCP 3 way handshake, the data transfer starts. After the data transmission process is finished, the connection will get terminated by sending FIN (FINISHED) flag which does graceful termination of connection.
TCP Half Open connection –
TCP connections are called Half Open connections when the third step of the 3-Way handshake sending final ACK to the server fails (as shown in below figure) or if one of the hosts closes the connection without acknowledging the other.
Half Open connection process is given below –
So an established connection is said to be "half-open" if one of the TCPs has closed or aborted the connection at its end without the knowledge of the other, or if the two ends of the connection have become desynchronized owing to a crash that resulted in loss of memory. Such connections will automatically become reset if an attempt is made to send data in either direction. However, half-open connections are expected to be unusual.
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