I would like to test a virus file through the PA firewall.
The firewall does not have a security profile configured.
Will the virus be detected by the PA ? Will it show in the threat log ?
If you want to verify that a malicious file is going to be caught by the firewall then you will need either a threat prevention license or a WildFire license installed on your firewall.
Check out the different Subscriptions You Can Use With the Firewall.
That being said, if you do not have a security profile attached to your security policies, then no, the firewall will not be scanning for those threats and it will not show up in the threat log.
When traffic matches the allow rule defined in the security policy, the security profile(s) that are attached to the rule are applied for further content inspection rules such as antivirus checks and data filtering. No security profile = no further content inspection.
The firewalls are equipped with out-of-the-box security profiles that you can use to protect yourself from threats. If you have a good understanding about the security needs on your network, see Create Best Practice Security Profiles for the Internet Gateway to learn how you can create custom profiles.